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英文惯用法及其翻译(7)

2013-02-02 00:26
(2)中国的山水画
 
  【原文】
 
  要说明山水画(1)的布置,先得说明山水画的构图(2)原理。原来山水画的构图,不是对景写实,而是用鸟瞰(3)的方法,将真景缩小(4),然后加以描写的。眼睛(5)中所能看到的,只有一重(6)山或一重水,这样简单的景物,是不容易构成山水画面的。作画的人,得走入山水的深处,遍观所有的风景(7),回到家里,把所经历的地方,像画地图似的缩写出来,还得把自己放的很大(8),把风景缩的很小,好像看假山(9)似的,才能构成“咫尺千里” (10)的画面。
 
  【译文】
 
  In order to explain the disposition of a landscape painting,we have to make clear at first the principle of its composition.Originally the composition of landscapes is not to paint a real picture as we see it,but to depict by means of a bird’s eye view,namely,to diminish the subject matter in a nutshell.What we can see with our naked eyes is generally only a single layer of mountains or rivers.This of course is not enough for us to compose a scene of the landscape.The one who paints ought to go into the heart of mountains and rivers,inspecting all the scenery before he puts down from memory on returning home the whole scope of his travelled regions as a miniature as he draws a map.In doing so,he has to enlarge himself as big as possible and contract the scenery as small as a rock?work to look upon,then he can for the first time compose a picture of thousand miles represented on a few?foot piece of paper or the like.
 
  【注释】
 
  (1)山水画:landscape painting.(2)构图:composition.(3)鸟瞰:a bird’s eye view.(4)缩小:diminish.(5)眼睛:指肉眼。our naked eyes.(6)重:layer.(7)遍观所有的风景:inspect all the scenery.注意scenery指一个地方或某一带的风景,不可写成复数如山景则说mountain scenery,海岸风光则说coast scenery,风景如画则说picturesque scenery.又如The scenery of West Lake is impressive.西湖的山水留给游人深刻的印象。(8)放大:enlarge.(9)假山:rock?work.(10)咫尺千里:a picture of thousand miles represented on a small piece of paper.
 
  (3)为学
 
  【原文】
 
  天下事有难易乎(1)?为之,则难者亦易矣;不为,则易者亦难矣。人之为学(2),有难易乎?学之,则难者亦易矣;不学,则易者亦难矣。
 
  蜀(3)之鄙(4)有二僧:其一贫,其一富。贫者语于富者曰:“吾欲之(5)南海(6),何如?”
 
  富者曰:“子(7)何恃(8)而往?”
 
  曰:“吾一瓶一钵(9)足矣。”
 
  富者曰:“吾数年来欲买舟(10)而下,犹未能也。子何恃而往!”
 
  越明年(11),贫者自南海还,以告富者,富者有惭色(12)。
 
  西蜀之去南海,不知几千里也(13)。僧富者不能至(14),而贫者至焉。人之立志(15),顾(16)不如蜀鄙之僧哉!(彭端淑)
 
  【译文】
 
  There is nothing difficult for us to do in the world.If we do it,the difficult thing will be easy;if we don’t,the easy thing will be difficult.There is nothing dificult for us to learn.If we learn it,the difficult thing will be easy;if we don’t,the easy thing will be difficult.
 
  There lived two monks in the western frontier of Szechuan,one poor and the other rich.One day the poor monk said to the rich one.
 
“I want to go to Nanhai,what do you think?”
 
  “On what do you depend for going there?”asked the rich monk.
 
  “A bottle and a basin will suffice me,”answered the other.
 
  “Well,I have been meaning to go there by boat for many years,but failed.How could you go without any support!”
 
  After one year the poor monk returned from Nanhai,and told his story to the rich one,who was ashamed to hear it.
 
  It is so many thousand miles from the western frontier of Szechuan to Nanhai.The rich monk failed to go,but the poor one went.Couldn’t we make up our minds to do something as the poor monk of the western frontier of Szechuan did?
 
  【注释】
 
  (1)因为一国有一国的特殊语法,翻译是决不能完全照字面直译的,例如本文第一句:“天下事有难易乎?”用白话说,便是世界上的事有没有难和易的分别,如照此英译为Is there a difference between difficulty and easiness in things of the world?则不合英美语法的表现方法,所以应该意译,看英美人对于这样的意思是怎样表达的,我们就怎样来译,不必拘泥于原文字句。注意nothing difficult,不能说成difficult nothing,因为在thing字上已有一个形容词,就不能再加别的字。他例如something Chinese(一点中国的东西)也是同样的用法。普通的情形,当然可以说not a difficult thing(不是一件难事)。(2)为学:to learn.(3)蜀:古地名,即今四川省。(4)鄙:指边鄙地方,可译the frontier districts,或简说frontier.(5)之:去。(6)南海:不可译作the South Seas (南半球的海洋;南太平洋),因为此处系指普陀山,南海观世音菩萨说法处,故音译为Nanhai.(7)子:你。(8)恃:依赖,可译作depend on.(9)钵:和尚盛饭的用具叫钵。用饭钵来化缘的和尚称托钵僧。(10)买舟:即买船票的意思,在此是指坐船。(11)越明年:意即经过了一年,故译为after one year.(12)惭色:意为惭愧之色,译为to be ashamed即可,色字不宜译出。(13)不知几千里也:意即有好几千里,故译为many thousand miles.文学作品对于距离不必太准确,否则应以li(里)代mile(英里)。(14)至:在此与其译成reach,不如译为go,更为适合说话的语气。(15)立志:下决心做事。to make up one’s mind.(16)顾:反而。此处只好译成Couldn’t的反问语气。
 
  (4)光与色
 
  【原文】
 
  目(1)睹物而知形(2),然形非色(3)不见;色非光不见。故色必资乎(4)光;画资乎日,夜资乎月星与火。光盛则色显,光微则色隐。色依(5)光以现其形:色浓则明,色淡则藏;色立乎(6)异,则相得益彰(7),色傍乎同,则若存若亡。(郑光复:《镜镜痴》)
 
  【译文】
 
  We know the shape of a thing when we see it,but its shape will not be seen if it has no color.The color of a thing will not be seen if there is no light.So the color for us to see has to depend on light,just as the day on the sun;or the night on the moon and stars,and fire.When the light is strong,the color becomes apparent;and when the light is dim,the color becomes obscure.A thing shows its shape by its color:it is conspicuous when its color is deep;it is invisible when its color is light.There will be a striking contrast if the colors of the things are quite different while their existence will not be felt if their colors are almost the same.
 
  【注释】
(1)目:指我们的眼睛,英文要说“人”看,不要说“眼睛”看,故不可译成the eye或our eyes.(2)形:外形,我们见到一件东西的样子。shape;form.(3)色:由一种特殊波长的光线所产生的效果。或是由于分解了的光线在我们眼睛上所产生的感觉。由此可知光与色的关系。(4)资乎:depend on;help.(5)依:by means of;by.(6)立乎:存在。be.(7)相得益彰:得到陪衬,愈为明显。help each other to become more conspicuous.
 

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