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国际结算专业词汇汇总

2010-08-13 09:33

A
Acceptance
The act of giving a written undertaking on the face of a usance bill of exchange to pay a stated sum on the maturity date indicated by the drawee of the bill, (usually in exchange for documents of title to goods shipped on D/A terms) - see Collections Introduction.
Acceptance Credit
A documentary credit which requires the beneficiary to draw a usance bill for subsequent acceptance by the issuing bank or the advising bank or any other bank as the credit stipulates - see documentary Credits.
Accommodation Bill
In the context of fraud, a bill drawn without a genuine underlying commercial transaction.
Accountee
Another name for the applicant/opener of a documentary credit i.e. the importer = the person for whose account the transaction is made.
Advice of Fate
The Collecting Bank informs the Remitting Bank of non- payment/non-acceptance or (for D/A bills) of acceptance and the bill maturity date - see Handling Import Collections.
Advising
Act of conveying the terms and conditions of a DC to the beneficiary. The advising bank is the issuing bank agent, usually located in the beneficiary country - see Export - DC Advising.

Advising also involves authentication i.e. advising bank should take reasonable care to check the apparent authenticity of the credit (ICC UCC 500 Art 7).
Amendment
Alteration to the terms of a DC; amendments must stem from the applicant, be issued and advised to the beneficiary; the beneficiary has the right to refuse an amendment if the credit is irrevocable - see Amendments to DCs.
Applicant
One who applies to his bank to issue a documentary credit; in the majority of credits issued the applicant is an importer of goods
 
Avalise
The act by a bank in guaranteeing payment of a bill of exchange or promissory note by endorsing the reverse with the words good per aval and signed by the bank, or by the issuance of a separate guarantee.

B
 
Back-to-Back Credit
A credit issued against the security back of another credit (master credit) on the understanding that reimbursement will stem from documents eventually presented under the first credit (master credit) issued - see Special DCs. It follows therefore that each side of a B/B transaction covers the shipment of the same goods.
Beneficiary
A payee or recipient, usually of money.

A party in whose favour a documentary credit is established, usually the exporter.
Bill for Collection (BC)
document(s) or cheque submitted through a bank for collection of payment from the drawee.
Bill of Exchange (B/E)
An unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person to another, signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand or at fixed or determinable future time a sum certain in money to or to the order of a specified person, or to bearer.
Bill of Landing (B/L)
A receipt for goods for shipment by sea. It is a document of Title: see documents.
 
Bill Receivable (BR)
Bills which are financed by the receiving branch, whether drawn under a DC or not, are treated as BRs by both the remitting branch and the receiving branches - see Bills Receivable.
Blank Endorsed
When a bill of lading is made out to order or shipper order and the shipper has signed on the back of it, it is said to be blank endorsed. The bill of lading then becomes a bearer instrument and the holder can present it to the shipping company to take delivery of the goods. 
 

 

G

 

General Average

 

Loss which is the result of a sacrifice voluntarily made or an expense incurred; for the sole purpose of saving a ship and its cargo in face of a common danger (e.g. jettison of cargo to lighten a ship in distress). The loss is borne proportionately by ship and cargo owners according to their respective interests in the voyage.

 

Gross Weight

 

The weight of the merchandise in its shipping form, i.e. including all its packaging.

 

 

I

 

ICC 322

 

Uniform Rules for Collections

 

ICC 323

 

Standard Forms for Issuing documentary Credits

 

ICC 420

 

Guide to the Prevention of International Trade Fraud.

 

ICC 460

 

Incoterms 1990. Explains the 13 standard Incoterms.

 

ICC 500

 

Uniform Customs and Practice for documentary Credits (1993 revision) replaced the previous ICC 400 as from 1 January 1994.

 

ICC 522

 

Uniform Customs and Practice for documentary Credits (1995 revision) replaced the previous ICC 322 as from 1 January 1996.

 

Import License

 

A permit issued by the importing country'S authorities in respect of goods subject to import licensing restrictions.

 

Incoterms

 

Shipping Terms - see Introduction to International Trade.

 

Indemnity

 

Also known as Letter of Guarantee (L/G), it is an undertaking given in respect of discrepancies in documents presented under a credit. The beneficiary who issues the indemnity is primarily liable to repay funds received from the negotiating bank in settlement under the credit, if the negotiating bank cannot obtain reimbursement from the issuing bank as a result of documents being rejected by the applicant.

 

Inherent Vice

 

The propensity of a commodity to self-destruction which gives rise to a high insurance risk, therefore cover is given only after payment of an additional premium (e.g. fruit rots, coal-dust spontaneously ignites).

 

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

 

The international body which promotes and facilitates world trade, and which codifies world trade practices in various publications - see ICC Rules?under Introduction to International Trade.

 

Irrevocable Credit

 

Constitutes a definite undertaking of the issuing bank and the confirming bank, if any, to honour the credit provided the terms of the credit are observed. It may be advised to the beneficiary without engagement by the advising bank, and cannot be amended or cancelled unless the issuing bank, the confirming bank and the beneficiary agree.

 

Issuing Bank

 

The bank that opens a documentary credit at the request of its customer, the applicant.


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