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中医英语翻译理论与实践_Transwings

1970-01-01 08:00
 
一点常识
 
《礼记•王制》
 
“ 中国,夷、蛮、戎、狄……五方之民,言语不通,嗜欲不同。达其志,通其欲,东方曰寄,南方曰象,西方曰狄鞮,北方曰译。” 
严子《译例言》
译事三难信 达 雅。求其信已大难矣。顾信矣不达。虽译犹不译也。 
支谦《法句经序》 
        
    仆初嫌其辞不雅。维祗难曰:“佛言依其义不用饰,取其法不以严。其传经者,当令易晓,勿失厥义,是则为善。”座中咸曰:“老氏称‘美言不信,信言不美。’仲尼亦云:‘书不尽言,言不尽意。’明圣人意深邃无极。今传胡义,实宜径达。”是以自偈受译人口,因循本旨,不加文饰。
译业与译才
咸宁万国第一 
 Bringing peace to all the countries in the world
 黄帝升坐紫微宫,岐伯、雷公各侍左右。 
      Huangdi was sitting in the palace in the Heaven. Qibo and Leigong, his senior ministers, were standing on either side in attendance.
黄帝曰:“惜时与卿等谈医论药,旨在救天下万民于忧患,非为吾华夏一族所计。朕观日月交辉,忧人世多艰。愿昔时所厘之医道广播四海,咸宁万国。” 
Huangdi said: “I have established this system of medicine for people all over the world, not just for the Chinese nation. I hope that it can be disseminated and practiced over the world.” 
岐伯曰:“陛下所立之医道乃兴国生民之大法。故当传于四方,惠及愚智贤不肖。 
Qibo said: “The medicine that Your Majesty have established is indispensable to the life of the people. So it should be disseminated to all the whole  world and serve for peoples from different countries.  
自《黄帝内经》问世,华夏医道于汉唐之际东传高丽、扶桑,南播交趾诸岛,北及朔方之域,西入吐蕃高原,于各族各部之繁荣昌盛,善莫大焉。” 
Since the publication of Huangdi Neijing, Chinese medicine was spread to Korea, Japan, Viet Nam and northern areas of China. It has made great contributions to the prosperity and development of these countries.”
黄帝曰:“四异之邦与吾华夏言语不通,嗜欲不同。华夏医道,何以传之于彼?”
Huangdi said: “The languages spoken in these countries and areas are different from the Chinese language. How was the Chinese medicine disseminated to these places?”
岐伯对曰:“诸四异之邦文在初创,医道未立。故遣其聪慧之士远涉千山,前来中土,潜习华文,精修医术。 
Qibo answered: “At that time medicine and written language in these countries and areas were not established yet. These countries sent students and scholars  to China to study Chinese language and medicine through Chinese media.  
及谙熟之,并携医经药典还国,以华文传于其地。故今之日文多杂以华字。朝韩越国,旧亦书华文行儒学。”
After returning their countries, they practiced and taught Chinese medicine through the media of Chinese characters. That is why today Chinese characters still can be found in Japanese written language.” 
黄帝曰:“吐蕃、西域及朔方之大部今属中国之地;高丽、扶桑、交趾皆为儒学昌盛之邦。华夏医道传之其地当无山隔水断之忧。 
Huangdi said: “Korea, Japan and Viet Nam are all the countries within the circle of Confucian civilization. The dissemination of Chinese medicine in these countries is certainly not very difficult.  
朕所虑者,乃泰西之国。其国与华夏远涉重洋,言语迥异。华夏之医,如何传之于彼?” 
What I am always worrying about  is the countries in the West. The Western countries are quite different from China in language and customs. What shall we do to disseminate Chinese medicine to these countries?” 
岐伯曰:“古人云:名物不同,传实不易。欲使泰西之人晓谕华夏医术,须经翻译之径。然泰西之语与华夏之文契合者少,遂使翻译辞不达义,谬误广布。”
Qibo answered: “It is true that the Western languages are totally different from the Chinese language. That is why there are many errors in the current translation of Chinese medicine into the Western languages.” 
黄帝曰:“医者,性命攸关之术。岂可恣意妄为?差之毫厘,谬之千里。反左为右,生即为杀。然泰西之语与吾华夏之文泾渭两色,如之奈何?” 
Huangdi said: “Medicine is closely related to the life of the people. One small mistake may lead to a great disaster. But the Western languages are so different from the Chinese language. How to translate Chinese medicine into Western languages then?”
岐伯对曰:“必得精于华夏医术、谙于泰西言语之士潜心较之、辨之,方可厘定传译之序,通达医道之旨,消讹除误,交通东西。” 
黄帝问曰:“此等贤士,何处可得?”
Qibo answered: “It can only be done by those who

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