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医学英语的特点和翻译_Transwings

2012-05-31 12:46
医学英语的特点和翻译 徐育年 中南大学外国语学院 Contents 1. 医学英语的特点  2. 翻译的标准   3. 篇章段落的翻译练习之一 医学英语的特点  专业术语的广泛使用  语法结构的特点 名词和名词短语的广泛使用 被动语态 动词时态的相对稳定性  长句和结构句的使用  文章结构的相对稳定 医学英语单词的构成  词汇的构成 构词特点举例 语法结构的特点:名词和名词短语 语法结构的特点 :被动语态 语法结构的特点: 时态的稳定性 长句和结构句的广泛使用 举例(1) For example, asthma now affects approximately 10% of the population of many Western countries; lung cancer is the most common male cancer and in some places has already exceeded breast cancer as the most common female malignancy.  Tuberculosis, for so long the staple of the respiratory physician is, after a long  period of decline, increasing again.  举例(2) The respiratory complications of HIV infections have added to the burden. Increases in pollution, new industrial  processes and the growing worldwide consumption of tobacco all have implications for the lungs.  The average family practitioner, therefore, is likely to spend more of the working day examining the respiratory system than any other.  文章结构的相对稳定性特点  翻译的标准  段落翻译 Does the patient breathe more comfortably in certain positions? Can the patient lie flat or does he or she have to be propped up? Patients with pulmonary oedema and severe airflow limitation will be unable to lie down for long but then most patients with breathing difficulty are more comfortable sitting up. Is breathing audible? Wheeze is a prolonged expiratory noise often audible to the patient as well as the doctor and implies airflow limitation. Stridor is a harsh, chiefly inspiratory noise and implies obstruction in the central airways. This may be at laryngeal level when the voice is usually hoarse but otherwise implies tracheal or major bronchial obstruction. In children, croup and foreign bodies are the usual causes; in adults, carcinoma or extrinsic compression.  病人呼吸是否在特定的位置更舒适?可病人平躺或他或她必须撑起了?肺水肿,严重限制患者的气流将无法躺下长期呼吸困难,但后来大多数病人坐起来更舒服。呼吸是发声喘息呼气是一个长期的噪音常常听见的病人以及医生和暗示气流限制。喘鸣是一个严峻的,主要是吸气噪音,意味着在中央气道阻塞。这可能是在喉水平时,声音嘶哑,但通常是指气管或其他重大支气管阻塞。在儿童,哮吼和外国机构,是通常的原因,在成年人,癌或外在压缩。 段落翻译 Despite improved living conditions, widespread vaccination, and the availability of effective antibiotics, infectious diseases continue to take a heavy toll in the United States  among persons debilitated with chronic disease, treated with  immunosuppressive drugs, or suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the absence of effective antiretroviral therapies. In developing countries, unsanitary living conditions and malnutrition contribute to a massive burden of infectious disease that kills more than 10 million persons each year. Most of these deaths are among children who suffer respiratory and diarrheal infections caused by viruses and bacteria. In addition, an increasing number of deaths in Africa and Asia occur among adults who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cannot afford even the least expensive antiviral drugs.  尽管生活条件的改善,普遍接种疫苗,并提供有效的抗生素,传染性疾病继续采取与慢性病之间的衰弱的人在美国沉重的代价,与免疫抑制药物,或后天免疫缺损综合症(艾滋病)的痛苦,治疗缺乏有效的抗逆转录病毒疗法。在发展中国家,不卫生的生活条件和营养不良导致的传染病,死亡人数超过1000万,每年巨大负担。这些死亡多数是儿童遭受病毒和细菌引起的呼吸道感染和腹泻。此外,在非洲和亚洲的死亡人数越来越多发生是与人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)和不能即使最昂贵的抗病毒药物感染的成年人。 Home  assignment How much epidemiologic data do we need to justify a prevention effort? Clearly, there is no easy answer to this question. Some of the issues involved differ depending on whether primary or secondary prevention is being considered. If we are discussing primary prevention, the answer depends on the severity of the condition, on the costs involved (in terms of dollars, human suffering, and loss of quality of life), on the strength  of the evidence that implicates a certain causal factor or factors in the etiology of the disease in question, and on the difficulty of reducing or eliminating exposure to that factor.  Thanks for your attention.  
 

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