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特许经营中特许合约安排问题的研究

2010-10-18 17:55

 

原文:本文主要研究特许经营中特许合约的安排及其有效性问题。在特许经营中,特许合约的制定是至关重要的,一份特许合约一般都会对加盟费、特许权使用费、保证金、管理费用、广告基金以及原料的供货价格等事项做出明确的规定。在这当中,有关特许权使用费的计算有两种不同的方式,一种是基于受许人销售收入的(sales-based royalty,SBR),另一种则是基于受许人的利润(margin-based royalty,MBR),因而也就产生了两类不同的特许合约,简记为SBR MBR 合约。有关SBR 的合约方式,已有学者对其做了研究,但在研究SBR 合约时,他们基本上只考虑了加盟费、特许权使用费以及产品零售价格等因素,而对原料供货价格的影响并未做考虑;对于另一种合约方式MBR,在学术界则很少有人研究。因而,本文在前人研究的基础上,对这两类不同的合约方式分别进行了研究,并增加了原料供货价格因素的影响。在研究的过程中,本文分两大步骤进行:第一步,先假设特许双方是一种领导者与追随者的关系,即在谈判过程中双方不存在合作行为,直接按顺序依次出价,进而得出了两类不同合约的一系列最优的支付方案值(t~* ,F~*,w~*,p~*),进一步地,本文还对这两类不同合约产生的结果进行了比较分析,结果表明:基于受许人利润的合约安排(MBR)总体上优于基于受许人销售收入的合约安排(SBR);第二步,本文将特许双方的非合作关系假设条件放宽,假设他们之间存在合作行为,以研究由第一步得出的两类特许合约安排是否存在可以通过合作而加以改进。在研究的过程中,本文运用了帕累托有效性理论,结果显示:MBR 的合约安排已达到帕累托最优,不存在可以改进的地方;SBR 的合约安排则未达到,特许双方可以通过合作来进一步提高他们的利润。此外,本文还运用了帕累托阿罗风险规避和纳什讨价还价理论,对因特许双方合作而新增的利润如何进行划分做了进一步的研究和讨论。

译文:The focus of this paper is on the arrangement and its efficient test of franchise contract. In a franchising system, the stipulating of a franchise contract is the most important, generally, a franchise contract includes franchise initial fee, royalty fee, caution money, advertising fund ,whole sale price of the material, and so on. About the franchise royalty fee, there are two different ways to calculate: one is sales-based royalty(shorten as “SBR”), and other is margin-based royalty(shorten as “MBR”), so this caused two different franchise contracts, shorten as SBR and MBR contract. In the literature, many scholars have researched SBR contract, but they considered only three factors: the initial fee, royalty fee and price, not including the effect of wholesale price, while for the contract way of MBR, there are little study. Based on this background, this paper studied this two different contract ways, MBR and SBR, adding the factor of wholesale price. This paper divided two large parts, the first one is supposing that the relationship of franchisor and franchisee is uncooperative, that is, they bid directly according an order, then gained a series optimal payment schemes of this two different contract ways, farther, this paper made a comparison of these payment schemes, and the results showed that the MBR contract is better than the SBR one as a whole. The second part, this paper relaxed the supposition of noncooperation, supposing the relationship of franchisor and franchisee is cooperative, and then test whether the franchisor and franchisee can improve the payment schemes gained from the first part through cooperating, in this part, we used the theory of Parreto efficient, and the results showed that, the MBR contract way has reached the optimal point of Parreto, while the SBR contract way hasn’t, which can be mended through cooperating, and then increasing the profits of each other farther. Moreover, to resolve the problem how to divide the added profits, this paper used the theory of Parreto-Arrow risk aversion and Nash bargaining model.

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