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企业人力资本与企业绩效的实证研究

2010-10-18 18:30

摘要:随着世界经济的快速发展以及各国之间、各地区之间经济发展不平衡的日益加剧,人力资本在经济发展中的作用正成为经济学界研究的热点。80年代末以来的研究表明,一国发展初期的人力资本存量水平及其变化对经济发展过程具有决定性的影响,人力资本是推动发展中国家经济发展的根本动力。 人力资本理论认为,企业是物质资本与人力资本达成的复杂合约,是人力资本与物质资本结合的场所,是人力资本借以发挥自身价值的主要组织。高效的企业人力资本配置,不仅带来企业人力资本绩效的提高和企业自身的持续发展,而且对于整个社会人力资本的配置都将产生重大的推动作用。随着竞争的加剧,企业不断地挖掘其所能获得的资源作为竞争优势的来源,资金、技术等资源越来越快地为竞争对手所模仿,成为竞争优势的可能性越来越小,而人力资本,蕴含在员工中的知识和能力以及员工之间的关系因为有着很强的背景依赖性和路径依赖性,难以为竞争对手模仿,因此成为企业的核心竞争力。 本文以我国上市公司为研究样本,以实证的方法研究企业人力资本存量与企业绩效的关系以及企业人力资本流动与企业绩效变动的关系。笔者首先对企业绩效决定因素的相关理论进行了评析,通过分析发现,人力资本是企业绩效的决定性因素,企业绩效的差异在于企业拥有的人力资本存量高低的差异。通过实证分析发现,企业人力资本存量与企业绩效并不是都呈现出显著的正相关关系,不同的行业有不同的表现;企业人才的引进并没有立即改善企业的绩效,而企业人力资本的流出促进了企业绩效的提高。企业经营绩效和一国社会经济的发展不仅取决于静态的人力资本存量,而且更取决于人力资本使用效率。分析的结论从侧面反映了我国企业人力资本使用效率低下的状况,我们对此提出了相关的建议;当前,我国存在大量阻碍人力资本所有者自由流动的因素,人力资本效率取决于人力资本的配置,而人力资本的配置要求人力资本必须能自由流动,故在文末,笔者提出了促进人才自由流动的相关措施及建议。
Abstract:
With the ever increasing development of global economy and the unbalanced development among countries and regions, the role of human capital play in economy is becoming the focus in economy research. It has been proved that the human capital level in the first stage of a country’s development and it’s change has the decisive effect on the country’s development by the 1980’s research.The human capital is the motive power of the developing country’s development. In human capital theory, corporation is a complex contract signed by human capital and material capital. Corporation is the conjuncture of human capital and material capital, it is the main organize for human capital to play it’s role. Efficient deploy of human capital can not only enhance corporate performance and it’s sustained development, but also has the positive effect on the deploy of the whole society’s human capital. Under the fierce competition, corporations make full use of it’s resources to earn competitive advantages.The possibilities to earn competitive advantages from capital and technology is becoming small because they can imitate by opponents easily, but human capital embodied in employees’learning and capabilities and the relations among employees are difficult to imitate by opponents, so it becomes the core competitions of corporations. The paper studies on China’s public listed companies, research the relationship between firm’s human capital and firm’s performance,the relationship between human capital’s flow and it’s effect on firm’s performance. We review the theory that which factor decide firm’s performance firstly,the answer is that the corporate human capital decide corporate’s performance.By empirical analysis,we find that there is not all positive correlation between firm’s human capital and it’s performance in all industries,the correlation is different by it’s trade.The recruit of talents doesn’t improve firm’s performance,however, the run off of talents improve firm’s performance. Firm’s performance and the development of a country’s economy decided not only by human capital’s storage ,but also decided by it’s efficiency.The conclusion of analysis reflect the facts that the efficiency of human capital is not high in our country, we put forward the suggestions to improve human capital’s efficiency.The efficiency of human capital decided by it’s deploy.Human capital’s deploy requires human capital can be flow freely.There exits many factors to hinder human capital’s flow presently.We also give some advices to promote human capital’s flow at the end of the paper.
 


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